МОСКВА «Белокаменная»

В 1366 году князь Дмитрий Донской вместе с двоюродным братом решили заменить деревянные стены Кремля стенами и башнями из белого камня, чтобы защитить город от нашествий соперничающих князей, Литовского княжества и Золотой Орды.

Так при князе Дмитрии Ивановиче вместо сгоревшего в пожаре деревянного Кремля поставлены стены и башни из белого камня.

Для этой цели в Москву привозили известняк из села Мячково, находившегося в 30 верстах от города. 

В конце XIV века Москву стали называть Москва Белокаменная.

В 1812 году в белый Кремль вступил Наполеон. А после Московского пожара Кремль, очищенный от копоти и грязи, вновь был выкрашен в сияющий белый цвет.

Почти до конца XIX века Москва оставалась белокаменной. Следуя сложившейся традиции, кремлевские красно-кирпичные стены белили почти четыре века.
Кремль белили к важным событиям, а остальное время он стоял как положено  с подтеками и облезлый, иногда красили одни только башни. 

Беспокоились не только о памяти белокаменного Кремля Дмитрия Донского, но и о сохранности кирпича.

Кремль действительно регулярно красили в белый цвет. Только в XX веке его перекрасили в красный цвет по приказу Сталина.

В 1941 году в начале  Великой Отечественной войны Кремль стали маскировать. Тогда старинные здания стилизовали под обычные дома, закрасили зеленые крыши и нанесли темную краску на позолоченные купола, сняли кресты, зачехлили звезды на башнях. На кремлевских стенах нарисовали окна и двери, а зубцы покрыли фанерой, сымитировав крыши домов. На Красной площади построены искусственные улицы, а опустевший Мавзолей (тело Ленина уже 3 июля 1941 года было эвакуировано из Москвы) накрыли фанерным колпаком, изображавшим дом. 

В 1947 году при подготовке к празднованию 800-летия Москвы в Кремле были начаты реставрационные работы и было решено перекрасить Кремль в красный цвет. Цвет был изменен в течение 1947-1948. С того времени цвет стен московского кремля регулярно красят в красный цвет, что придает ему нарядный и величественный вид.

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    В 1366-1367 гг. по распоряжению Дмитрия столица была укреплена первым на Руси белокаменным Кремлем. Если для ханских послов ворота его были гостеприимно раскрыты (Дмитрий предпочитал откупаться от них богатыми подарками), то для других соседей и князей-соперников Кремль стал мощной защитной крепостью. Когда в ноябре 1367 г. на реке Тросне литовский князь Ольгерд, приходившийся зятем тверскому князю Михаилу Александровичу, разбил московские полки. Дмитрий Иванович произнес: На великое княжение не пущу! . И действительно, наличие Кремля стало надежной защитой для московской столицы: в 1368 г. попытка Михаила Тверского осадить Кремль и взять его провалилась.

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